ISSN 0794-4756
 

Original Research 


MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA

Morufu. Afolabi ASANI, Salihu LUKMAN; Mohammed Dansuleiman IDI, T.A. ALADESANMI, Yunusa Mamaza USMAN, Isaiah Adesola OKE.

Abstract
In this study, the relationship between rainfall and groundwater recharge (GR) was established and evaluated with cost benefit. Rainfall data in Kano, Nigeria between 1905 and 2018 was analysed statistically and was used to fix the unknown constants of the modified numerical formula (NF) using Microsoft Excel Solver. The NF was used to estimate GR from the rainfall. Accuracy of the NF was evaluated statistically (relative error; the degree of accuracy, numerical reliability, Model of Selection Criterion (MSC) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC)) and compared with standard formulae in use using field GR Uttar Pradesh (UP) as the reference GR. A basic cost benefit of GR was conducted using standard method. The study showed that non parameter test of the rainfall data revealed that Mann- Whitney (U), Wilcoxon (W) and standardized index were 1532, 3878 and 0.185 respectively. Sens slope estimator of the rainfall data was 54.59 mm Yr-1. GR estimated using the modified numerical formula was similar to GR using UP, Chaturvedi, Kumar and Seethapathi , Rao Islam, Amritsar and BhaHacharjee, but different in magnitude of GR. NF provided the lowest relative error of 0.006 %, the highest MSC of 15.94; the degree of accuracy of 99. 99 % and the lowest AIC of -486.64 with BhaHacharjee formula having highest relative error of 244.16%, the lowest MSC of -4.88; the degree of accuracy of -144.16 % and the highest AIC of 1881.0. The current average cost benefit of groundwater recharge in Kano was found to be 1034.28US $ (₦377,512.4) m-2Yr-1. It is concluded that the modified numerical formula GR with minimum error and it is good tool in water resources management.

Key words: Groundwater recharge, soil-moisture, numerical solution, Microsoft Excel Solver, Kano.


 
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Pubmed Style

ASANI MA, LUKMAN S, IDI MD, ALADESANMI T, USMAN YM, OKE IA. MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. NJE. 2020; 27(1): 84-95.


Web Style

ASANI MA, LUKMAN S, IDI MD, ALADESANMI T, USMAN YM, OKE IA. MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. http://www.njeabu.com.ng/?mno=102844 [Access: October 20, 2020].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

ASANI MA, LUKMAN S, IDI MD, ALADESANMI T, USMAN YM, OKE IA. MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. NJE. 2020; 27(1): 84-95.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

ASANI MA, LUKMAN S, IDI MD, ALADESANMI T, USMAN YM, OKE IA. MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. NJE. (2020), [cited October 20, 2020]; 27(1): 84-95.



Harvard Style

ASANI, M. A., LUKMAN, . S., IDI, . M. D., ALADESANMI, . T., USMAN, . Y. M. & OKE, . I. A. (2020) MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. NJE, 27 (1), 84-95.



Turabian Style

ASANI, Morufu. Afolabi, Salihu LUKMAN, Mohammed Dansuleiman IDI, T.A. ALADESANMI, Yunusa Mamaza USMAN, and Isaiah Adesola OKE. 2020. MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. Nigerian Journal of Engineering, 27 (1), 84-95.



Chicago Style

ASANI, Morufu. Afolabi, Salihu LUKMAN, Mohammed Dansuleiman IDI, T.A. ALADESANMI, Yunusa Mamaza USMAN, and Isaiah Adesola OKE. "MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA." Nigerian Journal of Engineering 27 (2020), 84-95.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

ASANI, Morufu. Afolabi, Salihu LUKMAN, Mohammed Dansuleiman IDI, T.A. ALADESANMI, Yunusa Mamaza USMAN, and Isaiah Adesola OKE. "MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA." Nigerian Journal of Engineering 27.1 (2020), 84-95. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

ASANI, M. A., LUKMAN, . S., IDI, . M. D., ALADESANMI, . T., USMAN, . Y. M. & OKE, . I. A. (2020) MODIFIED NUMERICAL FORMULA AND COST BENEFIT OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN KANO NIGERIA. Nigerian Journal of Engineering, 27 (1), 84-95.